Antenna types

- Nov 29, 2018 -

The use of an external antenna for a cell phone allows you to increase the level of the received signal, eliminate disconnections and increase the data rate of a mobile phone, cellular amplifier, and any other devices to which it can be connected.

Antenna types

Panel-type antennas (sector) have an effective angle of signal emission from 12 to 120˚. The back wall of this antenna is made of shielding material that blocks the radiation of the signal in this direction. The front part of the antenna is made of radio transparent plastic. The "pluses" of antennas of this type include high power, resistance to wind loads, ease of installation.

Antenna type "wave channel" (directional) have many varieties that differ from each other in length, total number of elements, polarization planes and appearance. Antennas of this type have the common world name "Uda-Yagi". Antenna received widespread due to the availability, practicality and relatively low prices.

Whip-type antennas are based on a rigid metal rod, which can be solid or consist of several fragments. Whip antennas are used to receive and transmit cellular signals in different directions, have small dimensions and weight, but lose to other types of antennas in gain.

Some panel and whip antennas are designed for indoor use only, they are also called “internal” or “service”. Antennas in hermetic design are used both inside and outside the premises, they are called "street" or "donor".

Main characteristics

The antenna gain (KU) is measured in decibels and indicates the ability of the antenna to amplify the signal supplied to it. It should be borne in mind that an antenna with a gain of 8 dB when connecting to it a cable from a cellular repeater compensates for cable losses of 3 dB, therefore, after compensating for losses at the antenna output, the gain value will be 5 dB.

Antenna radiation angle is a characteristic that describes the ability of an antenna to efficiently radiate electromagnetic waves within the designated angle. Be careful, the values of the radiation angle in the horizontal and vertical planes can vary significantly.

The frequency range of the antenna must coincide with the frequency range of the device for which it is purchased, otherwise they will not work in conjunction.

Antenna polarization is the ability to receive and emit an electromagnetic wave in a specific plane. To indicate polarization, a symbol is placed on the “rear” part of the antenna, which helps the antenna to correctly position it in a horizontal or vertical plane during installation.

For efficient operation of the antenna-cable-to-telephone chain, the antenna input impedance must be equal to the characteristic impedance of the coaxial cable going to the device.

MIMO is a technology that separates the receiving and transmitting parts of the antenna, which increases the data transfer rate. Such antennas have two independent connectors and are used in conjunction with devices that have a separate connection of the UP and DOWN channels.

The connector type indicates which cable the other devices connect to the antenna. Some antennas have a connector rigidly attached to the case, and some have a small piece of coaxial cable with a connector on the end.

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