China's 5G promotion group formally released the white paper on "5G network architecture design" at the first global 5G conference on June 1. This reflects the latest results of China's 5G network technology research, which means that China's research from the 5G concept has entered The actual promotion phase - 5G really is coming. However, several questions about 5G may not be clear. This article will talk about it.
What is 5G?
In terms such as 3G, 4G, and 5G, G is an abbreviation of the English word "generation". Therefore, 5G is the fifth generation mobile communication technology.
In the field of mobile communications:
The first generation is analog technology;
The second generation of digital voice communications;
The third generation is a well-known 3G technology featuring multimedia communications;
The fourth generation is the 4G technology that is being rolled out, and its communication rate has greatly increased, marking the era of wireless broadband access.
In simple terms, 5G will be faster and power consumption will be lower than 4G, resulting in a series of new wireless products. Li Zhengmao, vice president of China Mobile, once spoke to demand a significant price cut for telecommunications equipment in the era of 5G: “In the era of 4G to 5G, the transmission cost per unit of bits has been reduced by 1,000 times. Then we also hope that the price of telecommunications equipment will also be reduced by 1,000 times. The cost will be determined by the operators. The key to profitability in the data era."
5G is not new technology
Two different perspectives on 5G
There is a view that 5G will be a new technology. The representative of this view is Huawei wireless network product line CMO Yang Chaobin. In his opinion, no matter how 4G evolves, it will not become 5G. 5G will be a brand-new technology.
5G is not just a technical update. It is also a very big jump development and a change. It also means that the network architecture must be upgraded. The demand of 5G for the network will be very different from that of 4G; although 4G LTE technology is still used now. It will continue to evolve, but no matter how 4G evolves, it will not become 5G. 5G will be a new technology.
However, most technologists prefer the following view: 5G is the inevitable evolution of 4G technology - it is both evolutionary and revolutionary.
Although any generation of technological development cannot be a repetition of the previous generation of technology, if the new generation of technology is the same as the previous generation of technology, then what is the new generation, so 3G technology is different from 2G, 4G is different from 3G, and its technical principle The methods of solving problems, deployment methods, and implementation capabilities are all different. However, there is no basis for the previous generation of technology, or the next generation does not inherit the technology of the previous generation, and a revolutionary upgrade is also a castle in the air.
5G is not an amazing new technology that turned out to be a new technology. 5G technology is a new combination of existing technologies and a re-evolution of 4G technology.
Why emphasize "re-"? Because the last three letters of 4G LTE mean long-term evolution, 5G should be re-evolved on the basis of 4G. Regarding the evolution of technology, the scientific squirrel member communication professional teacher Occam's Razor has a popular dual-hump theory, which clearly explains that 5G is only a viewpoint of technological evolution.
The Ockham Razor's Double Hump Theory
Occam's razor believes that after the emergence of a new technology concept, there will be a climax of research and discussion in the industry. This is the first hump.
Relevant academic papers will be produced as hot spots. A large number of doctoral masters rely on this new technology to complete the graduation thesis. Although it is very lively, but it is only limited to the level of academic discussion, but there are still many problems in the realization of specific technologies. Or, because of cost reasons, it is impossible to produce at all.
The climax gradually cools down in the research and discussion. This is the first fall of the hump, followed by low-key and pragmatic technical research. The platform period may be several years or maybe a decade or two. When the technical problems are solved, the business will be welcomed. Mass production and the upsurge of the market, this is the second hump.
According to the 2020 plan of the International Telecommunication Union, 5G will be fully entered after 5 years, and the core technology system has not yet been established. Recalling the history of 3G technology development, the International Telecommunication Union accepted the 3G technology proposal on June 30, 1998, and ushered in the first period of the hump. Until January 7, 2009, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology officially issued three copies. 3G license, this entered the second hump, the platform period lasted 11 years, especially one of the three licenses of TD-SCDMA, until 2013 was truly mature, the platform period of up to 15 years, can just mature 4G era It is coming.
According to the “two-hump rule”, the technology that will be used globally after 5 years should usher in the first hump in around 2010, instead of being born in 2-3 years before 2020, and then quickly be used by international telecommunications. The alliance is determined to be the global 5G standard, which violates the general law of technological development and is unlikely to come true.
There is no 5G without the development of 3G and 4G technologies
In essence, most R&D institutions have chosen the same path for 5G research, walking on two legs.
In 5G R&D, two legs are proposed: On the one hand, the evolution based on 4G technology will continue to be promoted, and on the other hand, 5G new technologies will be researched and developed.
In the face of the 1000-fold speed-up request in the 5G era, through the evolution of 4G technology, it is only possible to increase the bandwidth by a large margin. Increasing the bandwidth is the starting point. The resulting millimeter wave, micro base station, high order MIMO, beamforming, etc. are all logical trends. In the 5G era, the core technologies of large-scale antenna arrays, millimeter-wave technologies, new network architectures, and new air interface designs are all based on the extension of 4G network technologies. Most of them can double their performance. Taking the soft air interface technology as an example, this technology combines the hardware processing capabilities of the Pre5G to allow operators to have smooth upgrade capabilities from 4G to 5G. In this phase of 4G to Pre5G, the terminal does not need to be replaced, and from the Pre5G to 5G, the base station equipment can also be used. continue to use.
Understand that 5G is the basic definition of the fifth-generation mobile communication technology. It is clear that it is an upgrade from 3G and 4G. Naturally, it is a kind of technology accumulation and evolution. It can also be said that there is no 5G generation without the development of 3G and 4G technologies. The evolution of 5G technology is an inevitable result of technology accumulation on the one hand, and of course requires a revolutionary innovation to achieve the goal of evolution. On the other hand, it is also an inevitable requirement for the rapid increase in the demand for human communication.
Conversely, before the delay of 5G, there was no technology available. Second, there was no application requirement. Now that there is demand, we have 5G. What needs? The future of the network will face: 1000 times the data capacity growth, 10 to 100 times the wireless device connection, 10 to 100 times the user's rate requirements, 10 times the battery life requirements and so on. Frankly speaking, it is possible that 4G networks in the next five or six years may not be able to meet these demands, so 5G must be introduced in advance.
5G will be 10 to 100 times faster than 4G, and faster speeds will also increase the capacity of the network, allowing more users to log on to the network at the same time.
2, panoramic video: mobile can also be achieved
Many people will certainly be attracted to the giant screen in the stadium. But what if you can get the same real-time picture in a game or a smartphone? You can even switch lenses, replay instantly, and high resolution 4K video will refresh you.
3, self-driving cars: 1 million kilometers can have 1 million network connections at the same time
For the 4G network we are currently using, the limit of end-to-end delay is about 50 milliseconds, and it is still difficult to achieve remote real-time control. However, in the 5G era, the end-to-end delay only takes 1 millisecond, which is sufficient for intelligent traffic and even no one Driving requirements; now 4G networks do not support such a large number of devices connected to the network at the same time, it only supports a small number of mobile phone access, and in the 5G era, 1 million square kilometers can even have 1 million network connections. Most of them are all kinds of equipment. They are aware of the road environment, provide driving information, analyze real-time data, and intelligently predict road conditions...
Through them, the driver can truly understand the status of the vehicle and surrounding vehicles 360 degrees without being affected by the weather. In the event of a danger, he can also give advance warning and even realize unmanned driving.
4, Internet robots: real-time feedback doctor's instructions
For doctors, the robot will have great potential for surgery. But they need to give real-time feedback on the instructions sent by the doctor. When performing complex commands, working robots need to communicate seamlessly with doctors.
5, virtual reality: a variety of somatosensory needs speed network transmission
When you put on a VR helmet, you enter a virtual world in which you can interact with others, games and even high-fives. With 5G, collaboration between users will usher in a new era. Two people in the same physical location will be able to cooperate with each other. A variety of somatosensory functions require extremely fast network transmission to enhance virtual reality and the network is inherently a conduit.
You can also easily understand the 5G experience changes:
3G and 4G are personnel (connected) are not qualitative changes, 5G is not personnel (connected) is the qualitative change: in the 4G network, the cloud system can not transmit emergency instructions for the driverless cars through the traffic flow; 4G It is also not possible to provide the speed of instant language translation in teleconferencing, not to mention the remote command of the scalpel in the life-saving surgery - you know, the maximum delay of many instant wireless applications must not exceed 1 millisecond.
When will 5G arrive?
The first generation of mobile communications, deployed in China in 1987, was eight years behind the mainstream of the world.
2G, China began building 2G networks in 1995, which is 4 years later than Europe.
In 2009, China's first 3G network was opened, which was 8 years later than the opening of the world's first 3G network.
China's 4G license issuance in 2013 was about 3 years later than the world's first 4G network.
Believe that 5G, China's network deployment will be synchronized with the world, and even the first deployed countries. To know that the current 5G has become a technological highland that all countries are stepping up to seize. In China's thirteen-year plan, it has been clearly necessary to speed up the development and application of new information network technologies, actively promote the research of key technologies for the fifth-generation mobile communications (5G) and ultra-broadband, and start commercial use of 5G.
With regard to the promotion of 5G, the pace of national licensing has also accelerated significantly: 2G has been on fire for 15 years, 3G has been on fire for 6 years, and it has also improvised: China issued 3G licenses in 2009, and China Mobile obtained a TD-LTE license on December 4, 2013. The first to enter the 4G era, February 27, 2015, more than a year later, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology announced that China Unicom and China Telecom issued FDD LTE mode 4G commercial licenses, which means that the country left 4G for a maximum of 5 years.
Looking back at this process, in fact, China's release of FDD photographs at this point in 2015 is actually a layout that will be done in advance for the next five years. At that time, the country realized that if China's 4G protection period is blindly granted, China will lose 5G in 2020. As a result of the layout, TDD and FDD will be opened to the evolution of the 5G channel in advance through the issuance of FDD licenses, free from the constraints of others. Only in this way, based on the complete evolution of TDD and FDD technology, 5G will benefit the Chinese operators' choice of future 5G layouts and will be more invincible.
5G is no longer a concept in the future when it comes to China. It has become a real-life reality.
Our country's 5G planning steps are as follows: In 2016, we are ready to start the 5G standard research. It is expected that the first version of the standard will be completed in 2018. Then, based on the maturity of the product, the start time of commercial applications will be determined around 2020.
5G, the tariff will become more expensive?
The user is most concerned about the tariff, the arrival of 5G, will increase the input costs of operators, equipment vendors, and further increase network tariffs? When the real 5G arrives, it is not just a matter of falling prices. In fact, you may spend the same amount of money to get more than ten times the previous service. For example, if you (for the same money, before) can only make a call for 100 minutes, then to a 5G system, you may be able to call 1000 minutes.
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